Resources on Corequisites

Resources on Corequisites

As the National Organization for Student Success’s (NOSS) Research Network Chair, I am working on compiling and updating a comprehensive list of references that pertain to the relatively recent reform termed corequisites. Please contact me if you would like a resource added to this list.

This resource list is designed as a tool for researchers and practitioners to understand the corequisite model, learn how they have been applied, and evaluate how effective they have been. For an overview and critique of corequisites and how they have been applied in institutions and states across the nation, please read this article.

NOSS Research Network core members: Stephanie Jarrett, Jacqueline Pena, and Britt Annalyse.



Adams, P., Gearhart, S., Miller, R., & Roberts, A. (2009). The Accelerated Learning Program: Throwing open the gates. Journal of Basic Writing, 28(2), 50–69.

Adams, P., & McKusick, D. (2014). Steps and missteps: Redesigning, piloting, and scaling a developmental writing program. New Directions For Community Colleges, 2014(167), 15–25.

Anderst, L., Maloy, J., & Shahar, J. (2016). Assessing the Accelerated Learning Program model for linguistically diverse developmental writing students. Teaching English in the Two Year College, 44(1), 11–31.

Andrews, D. (2019). Predictors of community college students’ academic success in the corequisite model [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Georgia Southern.

Bailey, T. R., Bashford, J., Boatman, A., Squires, J., Weiss, M., Doyle, W., Valentine, J. C., LaSota, R., Polanin, J. R., Spinney, E., Wilson, W., Yeide, M., & Young, S. H. (2016). Strategies for postsecondary students in developmental education – A practice guide for college and university administrators, advisors, and faculty. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, What Works Clearinghouse.

Bailey, T. R., Jaggars, S. S., & Jenkins, D. (2015). Redesigning America’s community colleges: A clearer path to student success. Harvard Press.

Banks, T., & Dohy, J. (2019). Mitigating barriers to persistence: A review of efforts to improve retention and graduation rates for students of color in higher education. Higher Education Studies, 9(1), 118–131.

Barshay, L. (2018, February 19). How to help students avoid the remedial ed trap. The Hechinger Report.

Belfield, C. R., Jenkins, D., & Lahr, H. (2016). Is corequisite remediation cost effective? Early findings from Tennessee (CCRC Research Brief No. 62). Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Charles A. Dana Center. (2018). Scaling co-requisite supports at the University of Central Arkansas: Perspective from a four-year higher education institution (Notes from the Field: Number 4). The University of Texas at Austin.

Cho, S. W., Kopko, E., Jenkins, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2012). New evidence of success for community college remedial English students: Tracking the outcomes of students in the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) (CCRC Working Paper No. 53). Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Coleman, D. (2014). Replicating the Accelerated Learning Program: Preliminary but promising findings. Achieving the Dream.

Complete College America. (n.d.). Spanning the divide.

Complete College America. (2012). Remediation: Higher education’s bridge to nowhere. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Complete College America. (2018). Transforming remediation. University System of Georgia.

Complete College America. (2020). Fundamental features of corequisite learning support. University System of Georgia.

Complete College America. (2021). No room for doubt: Moving corequisite support from idea to imperative.

Daugherty, L., Gomez, C. J., Carew, D. G., Mendoza-Graf, A., & Miller, T. (2018). Designing and implementing corequisite models of developmental education: Findings from Texas community colleges. RAND Corporation.

Daugherty, L., Mendoza-Graf, A., Gehlhaus, D., Miller, T., & Gerber, R. (2021). Student experiences in English corequisite remediation versus a standalone developmental education course: Findings from an experimental study in Texas community colleges. RAND.

Denley, T. (2017). Co-requisite remediation full implementation 2015-16 (Tennessee Board of Regents Technical Brief No. 3). Tennessee Board of Regents.

Edgecombe, N., Jaggars, S. S., Xu, D., & Barragan, M. (2014). Accelerating the integrated instruction of developmental reading and writing at Chabot College (CCRC Working Paper No. 71). Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Education Commission of the States. (2015, November 10). Core principles for transforming remediation within a comprehensive student success strategy: A joint statement.

Fair, K. E. (2017). Effectiveness of a corequisite delivery model for developmental mathematics [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Eastern Kentucky University.

Field, K. (2015, January 20). 6 years in and 6 to go, only modest progress on Obama’s college completion goal. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Goudas, A. M. (2018). Rethinking the corequisite model: What is it, why remedial English and mathematics, and what is its net effect? Journal of College Academic Support Programs, 1(2), 48–50.

Goudas, A. M. (2019). The corequisite model: Origins, evolution, data, and net effects. National Organization for Student Success Practitioner to Practitioner, 10(1), 3–10.

Hanford, E. (2016, August 16). Stuck at square one: College students increasingly caught in remedial education trap. American Public Media.

Hern, K. (2019). Getting there II: A statewide progress report on implementation of AB 705: Are California Community Colleges maximizing student completion of transfer-level math and English? The Campaign for College Opportunity.

Hesser, T. L., & Gregory, J. L. (2016). Instructional support sessions in chemistry: Alternative to remediation. Journal of Developmental Education, 39(3), 22–28.

Important change in the ALP model. (2016, August 12). Accelerated Learning Program, Community College of Baltimore County.

Jaggars, S. S., & Bickerstaff, S. (2018). Developmental education: The evolution of research and reform. In M. B. Paulsen (Ed.), (2018). Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 469–503). Springer International Publishing.

Jaggars, S. S., Hodara, M., & Cho, S. W. (2014). Three accelerated developmental education programs. Community College Review, 43(1), 3–26.

Jenkins, D., & Bailey, T. (2017). Early momentum metrics: Why they matter for college improvement (CCRC Brief No. 65). Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Jenkins, D., Speroni, C., Belfield, C., Jaggars, S., & Edgecombe, N. (2010). A model for accelerating academic success of community college remedial English students: Is the accelerated learning program (ALP) effective and affordable? (CCRC Working Paper No. 21). Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Kane, T. J., Boatman, A., Kozakowski, W., Bennett, C., Hitch, R., & Weisenfeld, D. (2020). Is college remediation a barrier or a boost? Education Next, 20(2).

Kashyap, U., & Mathew, S. (2017). Corequisite model: An effective strategy for remediation in freshmen level quantitative reasoning course. Journal of STEM Education, 18(2), 23–29.

Logue, A. W. (2018, July 17). The extensive evidence of co-requisite remediation’s effectiveness. Inside Higher Ed.

Logue, A. W., Douglas, D., & Watanabe-Rose, M. (2019). Corequisite mathematics remediation: Results over time and in different contexts. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 41(3), 294–315.

Logue, A. W., Watanabe-Rose, M., & Douglas, D. (2016). Should students assessed as needing remedial mathematics take college-level quantitative courses instead? A randomized controlled trial. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 38(3), 578–598.

Matz, R. L., & Tunstall, S. L. (2019). Embedded remediation is not necessarily a pathway for equitable access to Quantitative Literacy and College Algebra: Results from a pilot study. Numeracy, 12(2), 1–28.

Miller, T., Daugherty, L., Martorell, P., & Gerber, R. (2020). Assessing the effect of corequisite English instruction using a randomized controlled trial. American Institutes for Research.

Oklahoma State System of Higher Education. (2016). Corequisite at scale guidance.

Parker, S., Traver, A. E., & Cornick, J. (2018). Contextualizing developmental math content into introduction to sociology in community colleges. Teaching Sociology, 46(1), 25–33.

Perez, E., To, H., Fowler, M., & Larrivee, L. (2018). Math course for Liberal Arts majors: A pilot with embedded remediation. Numeracy, 11(1), 1–11.

Procknow, H., Deithoff, L., & Herd, V. (2018). Corequisite courses for developmental students at a large research university. Journal of College Academic Support Programs, 1(2), 9–16.

Ran, F. X., & Lin, Y. (2019). The effects of corequisite remediation: Evidence from a statewide reform in Tennessee (CCRC Working Paper No. 115). Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Rutschow, E. Z., & Mayer, A. K. (2018). Making it through: Early findings from a national survey of developmental education practices (CAPR Research Brief). Center for the Analysis of Postsecondary Readiness and MDRC.

Sapp, S. B. (2018). Corequisite remediation in higher education mathematics: A community college perspective and experience [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Western Illinois University.

Scott-Clayton, J. (2012, April 20). Are college entrants overdiagnosed as underprepared? The New York Times Economix Blog.

Scott-Clayton, J. (2018, March 29). Evidence-based reforms in college remediation are gaining steam – and so far living up to the hype (Evidence Speaks Series). The Brookings Institute.

Shanahan, T. M. (2020). Pedagogical Framework for Integrating Developmental Writing and English Composition Through the Accelerated Learning Program Corequisite Model. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 20(10), 159–172.

Sides, M. (2016). Adapting the ALP model for student and institutional needs. NADE Digest, 9(1), 27–29.

Stahl, N., Armstrong, S. L., & Hewett, E. (2020). Contextualization models for community college reading and study strategies: An integrative literature review. Community College Journal of Research and Practice.

Tran, T. M. (2016). Transforming corequisite remediation in the USG. University System of Georgia.

Vandal, B. (2014). Promoting gateway course success: Scaling corequisite academic support. Complete College America.

Vandal, B. (2015). Core principles for transforming remediation. Complete College America.

Vaughn, R. (2020). Examining student perceptions of reading and studying in Introductory Psychology: An action research project. Journal of College Literacy and Learning, 46, 45–70.