Resources

Resources About Education

Below you will find a great deal of resources about higher education, education in general, remediation and developmental education, psychology, science, and related fields that I have used in my teaching, presenting, papers, or for interesting reading. However, much of it revolves around community college data. Most are in APA format, and there are sure to be errors. Most also have links in case you wish to find and read them. They are in order by category, but this is an on-going process. This page will also be updated regularly once new articles are located and cited. If you have more to share, please contact me here or post them here.

update: NLCC Conference Presentation on Collaboration

Download here: NLCC Conference PowerPoint PDF Goudas

Recent Presentations

Goudas, A. M. (2018, October 18). You have an effective reform, but how do you collaborate with decision-makers to implement it? [PowerPoint slides]. Michigan Developmental Education Consortium Conference Presentation. Download here: 2018GoudasMDECCollaboration

Goudas, A. M. (2018, September 27). The 4 C’s to collaborate: Communicate, comprehend, compromise, and cooperate [PowerPoint slides]. Minnesota Association for Developmental Education Conference Presentation. Download here: 2018GoudasMNADE4CsCollaboration

Goudas, A. M. (2018, February 8). No one is an island: How to implement and integrate holistic reform using spectrum thinking [PowerPoint slides]. Georgia Association for Developmental Education Conference Presentation. Download here: 2018GoudasGADESpectrumThinking

Goudas, A. M. (2018, January 26). Multiple measures for college placement: Important factors to consider [PowerPoint slides]. Arizona Association for Developmental Education Conference Presentation. Download here: 2018MultipleMeasuresGoudasAADEJan

Goudas, A. M. (2017, September 29). We know what works, so now let’s do it: How to implement holistic reform using spectrum thinking [PowerPoint slides]. Minnesota State System Conference Presentation. Download here: 2017GoudasMNStateSystemWeKnowWhatWorks

Goudas, A. M. (2017, March 3). Corequisites: The good, the bad, and the ugly [PowerPoint slides]. National Association for Developmental Education Conference Presentation. Download here: GoudasNADEPresentationCoreqsWebVersion2017

Goudas, A. M. (2016, March 31). Using high school GPA for college placement: The benefits and unintended consequences [PowerPoint slides]. Michigan Developmental Education Consortium Conference Presentation. Download here: GoudasMDECUsingHSGPAforPlacementApr2016

Articles, Books, and Papers

Pre-K

Bayol, S. A., Simbi, B. H., Bertrand J. A., & Stickland, N. C. (2008). Offspring from mothers fed a ‘junk food’ diet in pregnancy and lactation exhibit exacerbated adiposity that is more pronounced in females. The Journal of Physiology, 586(13), 3219–3230. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2538787/pdf/tjp0586-3219.pdf

Burchinal, M. R., Campbell, F. A., Bryant, D. M., Wasik, B. H., & Ramey, C. T. (1997). Early intervention and mediating processes in cognitive performance of children of low-income African American families. Child Development, 68(5), 935–954.

Campbell, F. A., Pungello, E. P., Miller-Johnson, S., Burchinal, M., & Ramey, C. T. (2001). The development of cognitive and academic abilities: Growth curves from an early childhood educational experiment. Developmental Psychology, 37(2), 231–242.

Chetty, R., Hendren, N. Lin, F., Majerovitz, J., & Scuderi, B. (2016). Childhood environment and gender gaps in adulthood. (NBER Working Paper 21936). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w21936

Childhood lead exposure and educational outcomes. (2013). National Center for Healthy Housing (Issue Brief). Retrieved from http://www.nchh.org/Portals/0/Contents/Childhood_Lead_Exposure.pdf 

Dobbs, D. (2013, December 16). Terrible twos who stay terrible. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/16/terrible-twos-who-stay-terrible/

Francis, D., Diorio, J., Liu, D., & Meaney, M. J. (1999). Nongenomic transmission across generations of maternal behavior and stress responses in the rat. Science, 286, 1155–1158.

Hart, B., & Risley, T. (2003). The early catastrophe: The 30 million word gap by age 3. American Educator, Spring, 4–9. Retrieved from https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/TheEarlyCatastrophe.pdf

Schweinhart, L. J. (2003). Benefits, costs, and explanation of the High/Scope Perry preschool program. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://www.highscope.org/file/Research/PerryProject/Perry-SRCD_2003.pdf

Skoe, E., Krizman, J., & Kraus, N. (2013). The impoverished brain: Disparities in maternal education affect the neural response to sound. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33(44), 17221–17231. Retrieved from http://www.brainvolts.northwestern.edu/documents/Skoe_Krizman_Kraus_JoN_2013.pdf

Sperry, D. E., Sperry, L. L., & Miller, P. J. (2018). Reexamining the verbal environments of children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Child Development (online version). https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/cdev.13072

K-12

Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C. T. (1995). Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 32(4), 743–772. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.3102/00028312032004743

Carey K., & Harris E. A. (2016, December 16). It turns out spending more probably does improve education. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/12/nyregion/it-turns-out-spending-more-probably-does-improve-education.html

Goodlad, J. I. (1984). A Place Called School: Prospects for the Future. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Heckman, J. J., & LaFontaine, P. A. (2010). The American high school graduation rate: Trends and Levels. The Review of Economics and Statistics 92(2): 244–262. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2900934/pdf/nihms-117813.pdf

Kraus, J., Slater, J., Thompson, E. C., Hornickel, J., Strait, D. L., Nicol, T., & White-Schwoch, T. (2014). Music enrichment programs improve the neural encoding of speech in at-risk children. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(36), 11913–11918. Retrieved from http://www.brainvolts.northwestern.edu/documents/Krausetal_Harmony_JNeuro2014.pdf

Kristoff, N., & WuDunn, S. (2014, September 12). The way to beat poverty. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/14/opinion/sunday/nicholas-kristof-the-way-to-beat-poverty.html

Nord, C., Roey, S., Perkins, R., Lyons, M., Lemanski, N., Brown, J., & Schuknecht, J. (2011). The Nation’s Report Card: America’s High School Graduates (NCES 2011–462). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/studies/2011462.pdf

Reuschel, J. C. (2009). A comparative study of high school academic paths, grade point averages, and ACT composite scores as predictors of success at Walters State Community College. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1847. Retrieved from http://dc.etsu.edu/etd/1847

Shukman, David. (2011, April 25). IQ test motivation—not just intelligence. BBC.co.uk. BBC News Online. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-13156817

Tough, P. (2012). How children succeed: Grit, curiosity, and the hidden power of character. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Turner, C. (2014). This is your brain. This is your brain on music. National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/blogs/ed/2014/09/10/343681493/this-is-your-brain-this-is-your-brain-on-music

Vigdor, J., & Ladd, H. F. (2010). Scaling the digital divide: Home computer technology and student achievement (CALDER Working Paper No. 48). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w16078.pdf

Postsecondary

Adams, P., Gearhart, S., Miller, R., & Roberts, A. (2009). The accelerated learning program: Throwing open the gates. Journal of Basic Writing, 28(2), 50–69. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ877255.pdf

Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in the Tool Box: Academic Intensity, Attendance Patterns, and Bachelor’s Degree Attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED431363.pdf

Adelman, C. (2004). Principal Indicators of Student Academic Histories in Post-Secondary Education, 1972–2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/prinindicat/prinindicat.pdf

Aldeman, C. (2009, November 3). Crossing the finish line: College dropouts. Education Policy Center Blog at American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from http://educationpolicy.air.org/edsector-archives/blog/crossing-finish-line-college-dropouts

Anderson, L., & Fulton, M. (2015). Multiple measures for college readiness. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States (ECS). Retrieved from http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/01/17/37/11737.pdf

Ariovich, L., & Walker, S. A. (2014). Assessing course redesign: The case of developmental math. Research & Practice in Assessment, 9(Summer), 45–57. Retrieved from http://www.rpajournal.com/dev/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/A3.pdf

Attewell, P., Lavin, D., Domina, T., & Levey, T. (2006). New evidence on college remediation. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(5), 886–924. Retrieved from http://knowledgecenter.completionbydesign.org/sites/default/files/16%20Attewell%20JHE%20final%202006.pdf

Bahr, P. R. (2008). Does mathematics remediation work?: A comparative analysis of academic attainment among community college students. Research in Higher Education Journal, 49, 420–450.

Bahr, P. R. (2010). Revisiting the efficacy of postsecondary remediation: The moderating effects of depth/breadth of deficiency. Research in Higher Education Journal, 33(2), 177–205. Retrieved from http://debdavis.pbworks.com/f/revisiting+postsecondary+remediation.pdf

Bowen, W. G., Chingos, M. M., & McPherson, M. S. (2009). Crossing the finish line: Completing college at America’s public universities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Boylan, H. R., & Bonham, B. S. (Eds.). (2014). Developmental education: Readings on its past, present, and future. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins.

Braga, M., Paccagnella, M., & Pellizzari, M. (2011). Evaluating students’ evaluations of professors. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp5620.pdf

Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2012). A matter of degrees: Promising practices for community college student success (a first look). Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin, Community College Leadership Program. Retrieved from https://www.ccsse.org/docs/Matter_of_Degrees.pdf

Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 3–7. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED282491.pdf

Chen, X. (2016). Remedial coursetaking at U.S. public 2- and 4-year institutions: Scope, experiences, and outcomes (NCES 2016-405). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016405.pdf

City University of New York, Office of Institutional Research and Assessment (OIRA). (2016). Significant increases in associate degree graduation rates: CUNY Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP). New York, NY: Author. Retrieved from http://www1.cuny.edu/sites/asap/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2016/06/ASAP_Program_Overview_Web.pdf

Complete College America. (2012). Remediation: Higher education’s bridge to nowhere. Seattle, WA: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved from https://postsecondary.gatesfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/CCA-Remediation-Bridge-to-No-Where.pdf

Core principles for transforming remediation within a comprehensive student success strategy: A joint statement. (2015, November 10). Education Commission of the States. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/files/core_principles_nov5.pdf

Crede, M., Roch, S. G., & Kieszczynka, U. M. (2010). Class attendance in college: A meta-analytic review of the relationship of class attendance with grades and student characteristics. Review of Educational Research, 80(2), 272–295. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0034654310362998

Cross, P. (1971). Beyond the open door: New students to higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers.

Daly, M. C., & Bengali, L. (2014, May 5). Is it still worth going to college? Economic Letter. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Retrieved from http://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/publications/economic-letter/2014/may/is-college-worth-it-education-tuition-wages/

Denley, T. (2017). Co-requisite remediation full implementation 2015-16. Nashville: Tennessee Board of Regents. Retrieved from https://www.tbr.edu/sites/tbr.edu/files/media/2016/12/TBR%20CoRequisite%20Study%20-%20Full%20Implementation%202015-2016.pdf

Fain, P. (2012, February 29). Standardized tests that fail. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/02/29/too-many-community-college-students-are-placing-remedial-classes-studies-find

Federal and state funding of higher education: A changing landscape. (2015). The Pew Charitable Trusts. Retrieved from http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/assets/2015/06/federal_state_funding_higher_education_final.pdf

Fong, A. B., Huang, M., & Goel, A. M. (2008). Examining the links between grade 12 mathematics coursework and mathematics remediation in Nevada public colleges and universities (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2008–No. 058). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory West. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/west/pdf/REL_2008058.pdf

Fong, K., Melguizo, T., Prather, G., & Bos, J. M. (2013). A different view of how we understand progression through the developmental math trajectory (CCCC Policy Brief #3). Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California: California Community College Collaborative. Retrieved from http://www.uscrossier.org/pullias/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Different_View_Progression_Brief.pdf

Franz , R. S. (1998). Whatever you do, don’t treat your students like customers! Journal of Management Education 22(1), 63–69. Retrieved from http://homepages.se.edu/cvonbergen/files/2013/01/Whatever-You-Do-Dont-Treat-Your-Students-Like-Customers1.pdf

Geiser, S., & Santelices, M. V. (2007). Validity of high-school grades in predicting student success beyond the freshman year (Research and Occasional Paper Series No. CSHE.6.07). University of California, Berkeley, Center for Studies in Higher Education. Retrieved from https://cshe.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/publications/rops.geiser._sat_6.13.07.pdf

Gerlaugh, K., Thompson, L., Boylan, H. R., & Davis, H. (2007). National study of developmental education II: Baseline data for community colleges. Research In Developmental Education, 20(4), 1–4. Retrieved from http://ncde.appstate.edu/sites/ncde.appstate.edu/files/RiDE%2020-4.pdf

Goodman, M. J., Sands, A. M., & Coley, R. J. (2015). America’s skills challenge: Millennials and the future. Princeton, N.J.: The ETS Center for Research on Human Capital and Education. Retrieved from https://www.ets.org/s/research/30079/asc-millennials-and-the-future.pdf

Goudas, A. M. (2018). Rethinking the corequisite model: What is it, why remedial English and mathematics, and what is its net effect? Journal of College Academic Support Programs, 1(2), 48–50. Retrieved from https://journals.tdl.org/jcasp/index.php/jcasp/issue/viewIssue/11/3

Goudas, A. M., & Boylan, H. R. (2012). Knee-jerk reforms on remediation. Inside Higher Education Online. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2012/06/19/essay-flawed-interpretations-research-remedial-education

Goudas, A. M., & Boylan, H. R. (2012). Addressing flawed research in developmental education. Journal of Developmental Education, 36(1), 2–13. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1035669.pdf

Goudas, A. M., & Boylan, H. R. (2013). A brief response to Bailey, Jaggars, and Scott-Clayton. Journal of Developmental Education, 36(3), 28–32. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1067287.pdf

Graf, N. (2017, May 16). Today’s young workers are more likely than ever to have a bachelor’s degree. The Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/05/16/todays-young-workers-are-more-likely-than-ever-to-have-a-bachelors-degree/

Grubb, W. N. (with Gabriner, R.). (2013). Basic skills education in community colleges: Inside and outside of classrooms. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hadden, C. (2000). The ironies of mandatory placement. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 24, 823–838. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.580.4344&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Hesser, T. L., & Gregory, J. L. (2016). Instructional support sessions in chemistry: Alternative to remediation. Journal of Developmental Education, 39(3), 22–28. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1130190.pdf

Hern, K. (2011). Accelerated English at Chabot College: A synthesis of key findings. Hayward, CA: California Acceleration Project. Retrieved from http://cap.3csn.org/files/2012/02/Chabot-Accelerated-English-Synthesis1.pdf

Highest educational levels reached by adults in the U.S. since 1940. (2017, March 30). The U.S. Census Bureau (Release Number: CB17-51). Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2017/cb17-51.html

How does the ASAP model align with guided pathways implementation in community colleges? (2016). New York, NY: MDRC. Retrieved from https://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/ASAP-GP_Brief_December.pdf

How grade point average correlates to various personal characteristics. (2010). Research report. Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges & Universities. Diversity & Democracy, 13(3), 21. Retrieved from https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/how-grade-point-average-correlates-various-personal

Hu, S., Park, T. J., Woods, C. S., Tandberg, D. A., Richard, K., & Hankerson, D. (2016). Investigating developmental and college-level course enrollment and passing before and after Florida’s developmental education reform (REL 2017–203). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southeast/pdf/REL_2017203.pdf

Ifill, N., Radford, A. W., Wu, J., Cataldi, E. F., Wilson, D., & Hill, J. (2016). Persistence and attainment of 2011–12 first time postsecondary students after 3 years (BPS:12/14) (NCES 2016-401). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016401.pdf

Johnson, J., Rochkind, J., Ott, A. N., & DuPont, S. (2011). With their whole lives ahead of them: Myths and realities about why so many students fail to finish college. San Francisco: Public Agenda. Retrieved from https://www.publicagenda.org/files/theirwholelivesaheadofthem.pdf

Jones, T., & Assalone, A. (2016). Not just faster: Equity and learning centered developmental education strategies. Atlanta, GA: Southern Education Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.southerneducation.org/getattachment/c33a8962-f5a5-4112-989a-0199b59bd85f/Not-Just-Faster-Equity-Learning-Centered-Developme.aspx

Juszkiewicz, J. (2015, March). Trends in community college enrollment and completion data. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges. Retrieved from https://www.aacc.nche.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/TrendsCCEnrollment_Final2016.pdf

Kirp, D. L. (2014, January 8). How to help college students graduate. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/09/opinion/how-to-help-college-students-graduate.html

Lamb, E. (2016, March 29). It doesn’t add up. Slate. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/education/2016/03/andrew_hacker_s_the_math_myth_is_a_great_example_of_mathematics_illiteracy.html

Levin, H. M., & Garcia, E. (2013). Benefit-cost analysis of accelerated study in associate programs (ASAP) of the City University of New York (CUNY). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Center for Benefit-Cost Studies in Education. Retrieved from https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/opportunity/pdf/Levin_ASAP_Benefit_Cost_Report_FINAL_05212013.pdf

Linderman, D., & Kolenovic, Z. (2012). Results thus far and the road ahead: A follow-up report on CUNY accelerated study in associate programs (ASAP). New York, NY: Center for Economic Opportunity. Retrieved from http://www1.cuny.edu/sites/asap/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2014/06/ASAP_Followup_Report_PDF.pdf

Logue, A. W. (2018, July 17). The extensive evidence of co-requisite remediation’s effectiveness. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2018/07/17/data-already-tell-us-how-effective-co-requisite-education-opinion

Logue, A. W., Watanabe-Rose, M., & Douglas, D. (2017). Reforming remediation: College students mainstreamed into statistics are more likely to succeed. Education Next Journal, 17(2). Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/reforming-remediation-college-students-mainstreamed-success-cuny/

Logue, A. W., Watanabe-Rose, M., & Douglas, D. (2016). Should students assessed as needing remedial mathematics take college-level quantitative courses instead? A randomized controlled trial. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 38(3), 578–598. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.3102/0162373716649056

Long, B. T. (2007). Remediation at community colleges: Student participation and outcomes [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/conf_achgap_cc_long.pdf

Lu, A. (2013, July 25). 1 in 5 freshmen need remedial courses, but do they work? USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/07/25/stateline-remedial-education/2586013/

Mangan, K. (2016, April 11). Streamlining the path to completion. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/Streamlining-the-Path-to/236053

Noble, J. P., & Sawyer, R. (2013). A study of the effectiveness of developmental courses for improving success in college. Iowa City, IA: ACT Research Report Series. Retrieved from http://www.act.org/content/dam/act/unsecured/documents/ACT_RR2013-1.pdf

Noble, J. P., Schiel, J. L., & Sawyer, R. L. (2004). Assessment and college course placement: Matching students with appropriate instruction. In J. E. Wall & G. R. Walz (Eds.), Measuring up: Assessment issues for teachers, counselors, and administrators (pp. 297–311). Greensboro, NC: ERIC Counseling & Student Services Clearinghouse and the National Board of Certified Counselors. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED480056.pdf

Pain, K. D. (2016). Voluntary remediation in Florida: Will it blaze a new trail or stop student pathways? Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 40(11), 927–941. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10668926.2015.1134361

Parker, S., Traver, A. E., & Cornick, J. (2018). Contextualizing developmental math content into introduction to sociology in community colleges. Teaching Sociology, 46(1). 25–33. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0092055X17714853

Perez-Pena, R. (2012, July 20). The new community college try. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/education/edlife/the-new-community-college-cunys-multimillion-dollar-experiment-in-education.html

Procedures and standards handbook version 3.0. (n.d.). What Works Clearinghouse. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/referenceresources/wwc_procedures_v3_0_standards_handbook.pdf

Radford, A. W., Berkner, L., Wheeless, S. C., & Shepherd, B. (2010). Persistence and Attainment of 2003– 04 Beginning Postsecondary Students: After 6 Years (NCES 2011-151). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011151.pdf

Radford, A. W., & Horn, L. (2012). Web tables: An overview of classes taken and credits earned by beginning postsecondary students. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013151rev.pdf

Roueche, J. E., & Roueche, S. D. (1993). Between a rock and a hard place: The at-risk student in the open-door college. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges.

Roueche, J. E., & Roueche, S. D. (1994). Climbing out between a rock and a hard place: Responding to the challenges of the at-risk student. Leadership Abstracts, 7(3). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED369445.pdf

Richardson, M., Abraham, C., Bond, R. (2012). Psychological correlates of university students’ academic performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 353–387. Retrieved from http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-content/uploads/Psychological-correlates-of-university-students-academic-performance.pdf

Russell, A. (2011). A guide to major U.S. college completion initiatives. American Association of State Colleges and Universities: A Higher Education Policy Brief. Retrieved from http://www.aascu.org/policy/publications/policymatters/2011/collegecompletion.pdf

Saxon, D. P., & Morante, E. A. (2014). Effective student assessment and placement: Challenges and recommendations. Journal of Developmental Education, 37(3), 24–31. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/24614032

Scrivener, S., & Weiss, M. J. (2013). More graduates: Two-year results from an evaluation of Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) for developmental education students (MDRC Policy Brief). New York, NY: MDRC. Retrieved from http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/More_Graduates.pdf

Scrivener, S., Weiss, M. J., Ratledge, A., Rudd, T., Sommo, C., & Fresques, H. (2015). Doubling graduation rates: Three-year effects of CUNY’s Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) for developmental education students. New York, NY: MDRC. Retrieved from http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/doubling_graduation_rates_fr.pdf

Six years in and 6 to go, only modest progress on Obama’s college completion goal. (2015, January 20). The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.chronicle.com/article/6-Years-in6-to-Go-Only/151303

Smith, A. A. (2015, May 8). Legislative fixes for remediation. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/05/08/states-and-colleges-increasingly-seek-alter-remedial-classes

Smith, A. A. (2015, June 25). When you’re not ready. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/06/25/floridas-remedial-law-leads-decreasing-pass-rates-math-and-english

Smith, A. A. (2016, May 26). Determining a student’s place. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/05/26/growing-number-community-colleges-use-multiple-measures-place-students

Sommo, C., & Ratledge, A. (2015). Bringing CUNY Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) to Ohio: Early findings from a demonstration in three community colleges. New York, NY: MDRC. Retrieved from http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/ASAP_Ohio_final.pdf

Spanning the divide. (n.d.). Complete College America. Retrieved from http://completecollege.org/spanningthedivide/

State Higher Education Executive Officers Association. (2015). State higher education finance: Fiscal year 2015. Boulder, CO: State Higher Education Executive Officers Association. Retrieved from http://sheeo.org/sites/default/files/project-files/SHEEO_FY15_Report_051816.pdf

Twigg, C. A. (2005). Increasing success for underserved students: Redesigning introductory courses. Sarasota Springs, NY: National Center for Academic Transformation. Retrieved from http://www.thencat.org/Monographs/IncSuccess.pdf

Twigg, C. A. (2009). Increasing success in developmental math: Following the NCAT playbook. Sarasota Springs, NY: National Center for Academic Transformation. Retrieved from http://www.thencat.org/Guides/AllDisciplines/How%20to%20Redesign%20A%20College%20Course.pdf

Nodine, T. (2010). One-shot deal? Students’ perceptions of assessment and course placement in California’s community colleges. San Francisco, CA: WestEd. Retrieved from https://www.wested.org/online_pubs/oneshotdeal.pdf

Weiss, M. J., Mayer, A., Cullinan, D., Ratledge, A., Sommo, C., & Diamond, J. (2014). A random assignment evaluation of learning communities at Kingsborough Community College: Seven years later. New York, NY: MDRC. Retrieved from http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/A_Random_Assignment_Evaluation_of_Learning_Communities_KCC.pdf

West, M. R. (2014, December 18). The limitations of self-report measures of non-cognitive skills. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-limitations-of-self-report-measures-of-non-cognitive-skills/

Westrick, P. A., & Allen, J. (2014). Validity evidence for ACT Compass placement tests. Iowa City, IA: ACT Research Report Series. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED546849.pdf

What is ALP exactly? (n.d.). Baltimore, MD: Community College of Baltimore County Accelerated Learning Program. Retrieved from http://alp-deved.org

Wilkenson, T. (2014). ACT college readiness benchmark attainment by annual family income level 2014. Iowa City, IA: ACT Research and Policy Information Brief 2014-22. Retrieved from https://www.act.org/research/researchers/briefs/pdf/2014-22.pdf

Willingham, D. (2013, February 18). What predicts college GPA? Blog essay. Retrieved from http://www.danielwillingham.com/daniel-willingham-science-and-education-blog/what-predicts-college-gpa

Yeado, J., Haycock, K., Johnstone, R., & Chaplot, P. (2014). Higher education practice guide: Learning from high-performing and fast-gaining institutions. Edtrust.org. Washington D.C: The Education Trust. Retrieved from http://edtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/PracticeGuide1.pdf

National Student Clearinghouse Research Center

Contribution of two-year public institutions to bachelor’s completions at four-year institutions (Snapshot Report 26). (2017). Herndon, VA: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. Retrieved from https://nscresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/SnapshotReport26.pdf

First-year persistence and retention (Snapshot Report 28). (2017). Herndon, VA: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. Retrieved from https://nscresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/SnapshotReport28a.pdf

Shapiro, D., Dundar, A., Huie, F., Wakhungu, P. K., Yuan, X., Nathan, A., & Bhimdiwali, A. (2017). Completing college: A national view of student completion rates – fall 2011 cohort (Signature Report No. 14). Herndon, VA: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. Retrieved from https://nscresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/SignatureReport14_Final.pdf

Shapiro, D., Dundar, A., Wakhungu, P. K., Yuan, X., Nathan, A., & Hwang, Y. (2016). Completing college: A national view of student attainment rates – fall 2010 cohort (Signature Report No. 12). Herndon, VA: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. Retrieved from https://nscresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/SignatureReport12.pdf

Shapiro, D., Dundar, A., Yuan, X., Harrell, A., & Wakhungu, P. K. (2014). Completing college: A national view of student attainment rates – fall 2008 cohort (Signature Report No. 8). Herndon, VA: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. Retrieved from https://nscresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/SignatureReport8.pdf

Snapshot report persistence-retention (Snapshot Report 18 ). (2015). Herndon, VA: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. Retrieved from https://nscresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/SnapshotReport18-PersistenceRetention.pdf

CCRC, NCPR, CAPR, CAPSEE

Adams, P., Bickerstaff, S., Johnsen, H., & Zollars, M. (2012). Adopting and adapting reforms: Replicating the Accelerated Learning Program [PowerPoint Presentation]. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/presentation/adopting-adapting-reforms-alp.html

Bailey, T. R. (2008). Challenge and opportunity: Rethinking the role and function of developmental education in community college (CCRC Working Paper No. 14). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/challenge-and-opportunity.pdf

Bailey, T. R. (2009). Rethinking developmental education in community college (CCRC Brief No. 40). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED504329.pdf

Bailey, T. R., Bashford, J., Boatman, A., Squires, J., Weiss, M., Doyle, W., Valentine, J. C., LaSota, R., Polanin, J. R., Spinney, E., Wilson, W., Yeide, M., & Young, S. H. (2016). Strategies for postsecondary students in developmental education – A practice guide for college and university administrators, advisors, and faculty. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/PracticeGuide/wwc_dev_ed_112916.pdf

Bailey, T. R., Jaggars, S. S., & Jenkins, D. (2015). Redesigning America’s community colleges: A clearer path to student success. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.

Bailey, T. R., Jaggars, S. S., & Scott-Clayton, J. (2013). Characterizing the effectiveness of developmental education: A response to recent criticism. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED542142.pdf

Bailey, T. R., Jeong, D. W., & Cho, S. W. (2009). Referral, enrollment and completion in developmental education sequences in community colleges (CCRC Working Paper No. 15). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/referral-enrollment-completion-developmental_V2.pdf

Bailey, T. R., Jeong, D. W., & Cho, S. W. (2010). Referral, enrollment and completion in developmental education sequences in community colleges. Economics of Education Review, 29(2), 255–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2009.09.002

Bailey, T. R., Jeong, D. W., & Cho, S. W. (2010). Student progression through developmental sequences in community colleges (CCRC Brief No. 45). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/student-progression-through-developmental-sequences-brief.pdf

Barnett, E. A., & Reddy, V. (2017). College placement strategies: Evolving considerations and practices (CAPR Working Paper). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/college-placement-strategies-evolving-considerations-practices.pdf

Belfield, C. R. (2015). Improving assessment and placement at your college: A tool for institutional researchers. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/improving-assessment-placement-institutional-research.pdf

Belfield. C. R., & Crosta, P. M. (2012). Predicting success in college: The importance of placement tests and high school transcripts (CCRC Working Paper No. 42). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/predicting-success-placement-tests-transcripts.pdf

Belfield, C. R., & Crosta, P. M. (2013, April 19). A better factory model. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2013/04/19/measures-college-efficiency-too-often-ignore-full-chain-production

Belfield. C. R., Jenkins, D., & Lahr, H. (2016). Is corequisite remediation cost effective? Early findings from Tennessee (CCRC Research Brief No. 62). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/corequisite-remediation-cost-effective-tennessee.pdf

Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. T. (2009). Addressing the needs of underprepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? Journal of Human Resources, 44(3), 736–771. Retrieved from http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1233354.files/Bettinger%20Long%202009%20Adressing%20the%20Needs%20of%20Under-prepared%20-%20JHR.pdf

Boatman, A., & Long. B. T. (2010). Does remediation work for all students? How the effects of postsecondary remedial and developmental courses vary by level of academic preparation (An NCPR Working Paper). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, National Center for Postsecondary Research. Retrieved from http://www.postsecondaryresearch.org/i/a/document/14155_ABoatman_BLong_Final_9-21-10.pdf

Calcagno, J. C., & Long. B. T. (2008). The impact of postsecondary remediation using a regression discontinuity approach: Addressing endogenous sorting and noncompliance (An NCPR Working Paper). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, National Center for Postsecondary Research. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/impact-remediation-regression-discontinuity.pdf

Cho, S. W., Kopko, E., Jenkins, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2012). New evidence of success for community college remedial English students: Tracking the outcomes of students in the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) (CCRC Working Paper No. 53). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/ccbc-alp-student-outcomes-follow-up.pdf

Dougherty, K., Lahr, H., & Morest, V. S. (2017). Reforming the American community college: Promising changes and their challenges (CCRC Working Paper No. 98). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/reforming-american-community-college-promising-changes-challenges.pdf

Edgecombe, N. (2011). Accelerating the academic achievement of students referred to developmental education (CCRC Working Paper No. 30). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/accelerating-academic-achievement-students.pdf

Edgecombe, N., Baker, E. D., & Bailey, T. R. (2013). Acceleration through a holistic support model: An implementation and outcomes analysis of FastStart@CCD. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED539910.pdf

Edgecombe, N., Cormier, M. S., Bickerstaff, S., & Barragan, M. (2013). Strengthening developmental education reforms: Evidence on implementation efforts from the Scaling Innovation Project (CCRC Working Paper No. 61). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/strengthening-developmental-education-reforms.pdf

Edgecombe, N., Jaggars, S. S., Xu, D., & Barragan, M. (2014). Accelerating the integrated instruction of developmental reading and writing at Chabot College (CCRC Working Paper No. 71). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/accelerating-integrated-developmental-reading-and-writing-at-chabot.pdf

Ganga, E., Mazzariello, A., & Edgecombe, N. (2018). Developmental education: An introduction for policymakers. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States, Center for the Analysis of Postsecondary Research. Retrieved from https://www.ecs.org/wp-content/uploads/Developmental-Education_An-Introduction-for-Policymakers.pdf

Hodara, M., & Xu, D. (2014). Does developmental education improve labor market outcomes? Evidence from two states (Working Paper). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment. Retrieved from http://capseecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/does-developmental-education-improve-labor-market-outcomes.pdf

Hughes, K. L., & Scott-Clayton, J. (2011). Assessing developmental assessment in community colleges. Community College Review, 39(4), 327–351. Retrieved from https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/assessing-developmental-assessment.pdf

Jaggars, S. (2011). Online learning: Does it help low-income and underprepared students? (CCRC Working Paper No. 26). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/online-learning-help-students.pdf

Jaggars, S. S. (2015, April 7). No, online classes are not going to help America’s poor kids bridge the achievement gap. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/04/07/no-online-classes-are-not-going-to-help-americas-poor-kids-bridge-the-achievement-gap/

Jaggars, S. S., Edgecombe, N., & Stacey, G. W. (2014). What we know about accelerated developmental education. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/accelerated-developmental-education.pdf

Jaggars, S. S., & Hodara, M. (2011). The opposing forces that shape developmental education: Assessment, placement, and progression at CUNY community colleges (CCRC Working Paper No. 36). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/opposing-forces-shape-developmental.pdf

Jaggars, S. S., Hodara, M., Cho, S. W., & Xu, D. (2015). Three accelerated developmental education programs: Features, student outcomes, and implications. Community College Review, 43(1), 3–26. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0091552114551752

Jaggars, S. S., & Stacey, G. W. (2014). What we know about developmental education outcomes. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/what-we-know-about-developmental-education-outcomes.pdf

Jenkins, D., & Bailey, T. (2017). Early momentum metrics: Why they matter for college improvement (CCRC Brief No. 65). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/early-momentum-metrics-college-improvement.pdf

Jenkins, D., Jaggars, S. S., & Roksa, J. (2009). Promoting gatekeeper course success among community college students needing remediation: Findings and recommendations from a Virginia study (Summary Report). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/strategies-promoting-gatekeeper-success-summary.pdf

Jenkins, D., Lahr, H., & Fink, J. (2017). Implementing guided pathways: Early insights from the AACC pathways colleges. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED574054.pdf

Jenkins, D., Speroni, C., Belfield, C., Jaggars, S., & Edgecombe, N. (2010). A model for accelerating academic success of community college remedial English students: Is the accelerated learning program (ALP) effective and affordable? (CCRC Working Paper No. 21). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED512398.pdf

Kafka, T. (2016). A list of non-cognitive assessment instruments. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from https://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/images/a-list-of-non-cognitive-assessment-instruments.pdf

Karp, M. M., & Bork, R. H. (2012). “They never told me what to expect, so I didn’t know what to do”: Defining and clarifying the role of a community college student (CCRC Working Paper No. 47). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/defining-clarifying-role-college-student.pdf

Martorell, P., & McFarlin, I. (2011). Help or hindrance? The effects of college remediation on academic and labor market outcomes. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 93(2), 436–454. Retrieved from https://www.utdallas.edu/research/tsp-erc/pdf/wp_mcfarlin_2010_help_or_hindrance_college_remediation.pdf

Rodriguez, O. (2014). Increasing access to college-level math: Early outcomes using the Virginia placement test (CCRC Brief No. 58). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/increasing-access-to-college-level-math.pdf

Rutschow, E. Z., & Mayer, A. K. (2018). Making it through: Early findings from a national survey of developmental education practices (CAPR Research Brief). New York, NY: MDRC. Retrieved from https://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/DCMP-InterimFindings.pdf

Scott-Clayton, J. (2012, April 20). Are college entrants overdiagnosed as underprepared? The New York Times Economix Blog. Retrieved from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/20/are-college-entrants-overdiagnosed-as-underprepared/

Scott-Clayton, J. (2012). Do high-stakes placement exams predict college success? (CCRC Working Paper No. 41). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/high-stakes-predict-success.pdf

Scott-Clayton, J. (2018, March 29). Evidence-based reforms in college remediation are gaining steam – and so far living up to the hype (Evidence Speaks Series). Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/evidence-based-reforms-in-college-remediation-are-gaining-steam-and-so-far-living-up-to-the-hype/

Scott-Clayton, J., Crosta, P. M., & Belfield, C. R. (2012). Improving the targeting of treatment: Evidence from college remediation (NBER Working Paper No. 18457). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w18457.pdf

Scott-Clayton, J., Crosta, P. M., & Belfield, C. R. (2014). Improving the targeting of treatment: Evidence from college remediation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36(3), 371–393. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0162373713517935

Scott-Clayton, J., & Rodriguez, O. (2012). Development, discouragement, or diversion? New evidence on the effects of college remediation (NBER Working Paper No. 18328). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w18328.pdf

Scott-Clayton, J., & Stacey, G. W. (2015). Improving the accuracy of remedial placement. New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/improving-accuracy-remedial-placement.pdf

Xu, D. (2016). Assistance or obstacle? The impact of different levels of English developmental education on
underprepared students in community colleges. Educational Researcher, 45(9), 496–507. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publications/assistance-or-obstacle-impact-different-levels-english-developmental-education-underprepared-students-community-colleges.html

Zeidenberg, M., Jenkins, D., & Scott, M. A. (2012). Not just math and English: Courses that pose obstacles to community college completion (CCRC Working Paper No. 52). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/not-just-math-and-english.pdf

THe Condition of Education Reports (by Year)

Kena, G., Aud, S., Johnson, F., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Rathbun, A., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., & Kristapovich, P. (2014). The condition of education 2014 (NCES 2014-083). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC. Retrieved [1 August 2015] from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014083.pdf

Kena, G., Musu-Gillette, L., Robinson, J., Wang, X., Rathbun, A., Zhang, J., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., Barmer, A., and Dunlop Velez, E. (2015). The condition of education 2015 (NCES 2015-144). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015144.pdf

Kena, G., Hussar W., McFarland J., de Brey C., Musu-Gillette, L., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Rathbun, A., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., Diliberti M., Barmer, A., Bullock Mann, F., & Dunlop Velez, E. (2016). The condition of education 2016 (NCES 2016-144). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016144.pdf

McFarland, J., Hussar, B., de Brey, C., Snyder, T., Wang, X., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., Gebrekristos, S., Zhang, J., Rathbun, A., Barmer, A., Bullock Mann, F., and Hinz, S. (2017). The condition of education 2017 (NCES 2017- 144). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017144.pdf

Noncognitives

Brunello, G., & Schlotter, M. (2011). Non cognitive skills and personality traits: Labour market relevance and their development in education & training systems. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor. Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp5743.pdf

Duckworth, A. L. (2016, March 26). Don’t grade schools on grit. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/27/opinion/sunday/dont-grade-schools-on-grit.html

Duckworth, A. L., & Peterson, C. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087–1101. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17547490

Duckworth, A. L., & Yeager, D. S. (2015). Measurement matters: Assessing personal qualities other than cognitive ability for educational purposes. Educational Researcher, 44(4), 237–251. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.3102/0013189X15584327

Gabrieli, C., Ansel, D., & Krachman, S. B. (2015). Ready to be counted: The research case for education policy action on non-cognitive skills (Working Paper). Boston, MA: Transforming Education. Retrieved from http://static1.squarespace.com/static/55bb6b62e4b00dce923f1666/t/5665e1c30e4c114d99b28889/1449517507245/ReadytoBeCounted_Release.pdf

Shafer, T. (2011). Developing expertise through a deliberate practice project. International Journal of Interpreter Education, 3, 17–27. Retrieved from http://www.interpretereducation.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Deliberate-Practice-Article.pdf

Income and Poverty

Abner, L., Butler, S., Danziger, S., Doar, R., Ellwood, D., Gueron, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2015). Opportunity, responsibility, and security: A consensus plan for reducing poverty and restoring the American dream. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy and The Brookings Institution. Retrieved from: http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2015/12/aei-brookings-poverty-report/full-report.pdf

Aisch, G., Cox, A., & Quealy, K. (2015, May 28). You draw it: How family income predicts children’s college chances. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/05/28/upshot/you-draw-it-how-family-income-affects-childrens-college-chances.html

The Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance. (2013). Measure twice: The impact on graduation rates of serving Pell Grant recipients. Washington D. C. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/files/Measure%20Twice%20Final.pdf

Belfield, C. R., & Levin, H. M. (2009). High school dropouts and the economic losses from juvenile crime in California (California Dropout Research Project Report #16). Santa Barbara, CA: University of California Gevirtz Graduate School of Education. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239926985_High_School_Dropouts_and_The_Economic_Losses_from_Juvenile_Crime_in_California

Belfield, C. R., Levin, H. M., & Rosen, R. (2012). The economic value of opportunity youth. Washington D.C.: Corporation for National & Community Service. Retrieved from http://www.serve.gov/new-images/council/pdf/econ_value_opportunity_youth.pdf

Cahalan, M., Perna, L. W., Yamashita, M., Ruiz, R., & Franklin, K. (2017). Indicators of higher education equity in the United States: 2017 trend report. Washington, DC: Pell Institute for the Study of Higher Education, Council for Education
Opportunity (COE) and Alliance for Higher Education and Democracy (AHEAD) of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://pellinstitute.org/downloads/publications-Indicators_of_Higher_Education_Equity_in_the_US_2017_Historical_Trend_Report.pdf

Carnevale, A. P., Rose, S. J., & Cheah, B. (2009). The college payoff: Education, occupations, lifetime earnings. Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/highered/reg/hearulemaking/2011/collegepayoff.pdf

Dynarksi, S. (2017, June 2). For the poor, the graduation gap Is even wider than the enrollment gap. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/02/upshot/for-the-poor-the-graduation-gap-is-even-wider-than-the-enrollment-gap.html

Gamoran, A., & Long, D. A. (2006). Equality of Educational Opportunity: A 40-year retrospective (WCER Working Paper No. 2006-9). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin–Madison, Wisconsin Center for Education Research. Retrieved from http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/publications/workingPapers/papers.php

Lynch, R. G. (2015). The economic and fiscal consequences of improving U.S. educational outcomes. Washington, D. C.: The Washington Center for Equitable Growth. Retrieved from http://www.unitedwaysb.org/sites/unitedwaysb.org/files/Economic%20%26%20Fiscal%20Consequences%20of%20Improving%20US%20Education.pdf

Nichols, A. H. (2015). The Pell partnership: Ensuring a shared responsibility for low-income student success. Edtrust.org. Washington D.C: The Education Trust. Retrieved from https://edtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/ThePellPartnership_EdTrust_2015.pdf

Rampell, C. (2009, August 27). SAT scores and family income. The New York Times Economix Blog. Retrieved from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/08/27/sat-scores-and-family-income/

The rising cost of not going to college. (2014). The PEW Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2014/02/SDT-higher-ed-FINAL-02-11-2014.pdf

Warschauer, M., & Ames, M. (2010). Can one laptop per child save the world’s poor? Journal of International Affairs, 64(1), 33–51. Retrieved from https://webfiles.uci.edu/mgames/research/Warschauer_Ames_OLPC_JIA.pdf

Weinberg, C. (2013, June 16). United negro college fund updates its slogan, and its brand. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/bottomline/united-negro-college-fund-updates-its-slogan-and-its-brand/

Wilkenson, R., & Pickett, K. (2009). The spirit level: Why greater equality makes societies stronger. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press.

Psychology and Economics

Abrams, S. E. (2016). Education and the commercial mindset. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Aronson, J. (2002). Stereotype threat: Contending and coping with unnerving expectations. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Burstein, M. (2015, March 2). The unintended consequences of borrowing business tools to run a university. The Chronicle of Higher Education Online. Retrieved from http://www.chronicle.com/article/The-Unintended-Consequences-/190489/

Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.

Evans-Pritchard, B. (2013, Winter). Aiming to reduce cleaning costs. Worksthatwork.com. Retrieved from https://worksthatwork.com/1/urinal-fly

Haley, K. J., & Fessler, D M.T. (2005). Nobody’s watching? Subtle cues affect generosity in an anonymous economic game. Evolution of Human Behavior, 26, 245–256. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257492174_Nobody’s_watching_Subtle_cues_affect_generosity_in

Hoff, K., & Pandey, P. (2005). Belief systems and durable inequalities: An experimental investigation of Indian caste. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from http://www-siepr.stanford.edu/conferences/Institutions2005/hoff-pandey-belief%20systems.pdf

Inagaki, T. K., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2013). Shared neural mechanisms underlying social warmth and physical warmth. Psychological Science, 24(11), 1–9. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24048423

Irwin, N. (2015, September 10). How Stanford took on the giants of economics. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/upshot/how-stanford-took-on-the-giants-of-economics.html

Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Do defaults save lives? Science, 302, 1338–1339. Retrieved from http://webs.wofford.edu/pechwj/Do%20Defaults%20Save%20Lives.pdf

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinkingfast and slow. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Nettle, D., Nott, K., & Bateson, M. (2012). ‘Cycle thieves, we are watching you’: Impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft. PLoS ONE, 7(12): e51738. Retrieved from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051738

Porter, E. (2017, January 10). Prisons run by C.E.O.s? Privatization under Trump could carry a heavy price. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/10/business/economy/privatization-trump.html

Steele, C., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797- 811.

Thaler, R. H. (2015, May 8). Unless you are Spock, irrelevant things matter in economic behavior. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/10/upshot/unless-you-are-spock-irrelevant-things-matter-in-economic-behavior.html

Tierney, J. (2011, August 17). Do you suffer from decision fatigue? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/21/magazine/do-you-suffer-from-decision-fatigue.html

Willis, M. T. (2012, January 2). Study: Placebo alters brain function. ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Depression/story?id=117057

Words ‘can change what we smell’. (2005, September 26). BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4558075.stm

Statistics

Aschwanden, C. (2016, March 24). Failure is moving science forward. Five Thirty Eight. Retrieved from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/failure-is-moving-science-forward/

Aschwanden, C., & King, R. (2015, August 9). Science isn’t broken. Five Thirty Eight. Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/science-isnt-broken/

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155

Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Med 2(8): e124. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1182327/

Lesik, S. A. (2006). Applying the regression-discontinuity design to infer causality with non-random assignment. The Review of Higher Education 30,(1), 1–19. Retrieved from https://muse.jhu.edu/article/203468/pdf

Nosek, B. (2015). Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science 349(6251). Retrieved from http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6251/aac4716